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# Content

`Manim Utils Tree Structure of Manim Utils Source and Reference`

# Manim Utils

A utils is the fundamental operations used in Manim.

## Tree Structure of Manim Utils

Utils Structure18Jan2020 based on 19Dec2019.
• utils
• bezier.py
• def bezier(points)
• def partial_bezier_points(points, a, b)
• def interpolate(start, end, alpha)
• def integer_interpolate(start, end, alpha)
• def mid(start, end)
• def inverse_interpolate(start, end, value)
• def match_interpolate(new_start, new_end, old_start, old_end, old_value)
• def get_smooth_handle_points(points)
• def solve_func(b)
• def closed_curve_solve_func(b)
• def diag_to_matrix(l_and_u, diag)
• def is_closed(points)
• color.py
• def color_to_rgb(color)
• def color_to_rgba(color, alpha=1) rgb_to_color(rgb)
• def rgba_to_color(rgba)
• def rgb_to_hex(rgb)
• def hex_to_rgb(hex_code)
• def invert_color(color)
• def color_to_int_rgb(color)
• def color_to_int_rgba(color, opacity=1.0)
• def interpolate_color(color1, color2, alpha)
• def average_color(*colors)
• def random_bright_color()
• def random_color()
• def get_shaded_rgb(rgb, point, unit_normal_vect, light_source)
• config_ops.py
• def get_all_descendent_classes(Class)
• def filtered_locals(caller_locals)
• def digest_config(obj, kwargs, caller_locals={})
• def merge_dicts_recursively(*dicts)
• def soft_dict_update(d1, d2)
• def digest_locals(obj, keys=None)
• class DictAsObject(object):
• def __init__(self, dict)
• debug.py
• def print_family(mobject, n_tabs=0)
• def get_submobject_index_labels(mobject, label_height=0.15)
• file_ops.py
• def guarantee_existence(path)
• def seek_full_path_from_defaults(file_name, default_dir, extensions)
• def get_sorted_integer_files(directory, min_index=0, max_index=np.inf, remove_non_integer_files=False, remove_indices_greater_than=None, extension=None, )
• images.py
• def get_full_raster_image_path(image_file_name)
• def drag_pixels(frames)
• def invert_image(image)
• iterables.py
• def remove_list_redundancies(l)
• def list_update(l1, l2)
• def list_difference_update(l1, l2)
• def all_elements_are_instances(iterable, Class)
• def batch_by_property(items, property_func)
• def tuplify(obj)
• def stretch_array_to_length(nparray, length)
• def make_even(iterable_1, iterable_2)
• def make_even_by_cycling(iterable_1, iterable_2)
• def remove_nones(sequence)
• def concatenate_lists(*list_of_lists)
• paths.py
• def straight_path(start_points, end_points, alpha)
• def path_along_arc(arc_angle, axis=OUT)
• def path(start_points, end_points, alpha)
• def clockwise_path()
• def counterclockwise_path()
• rate_functions.py
• def linear(t)
• def smooth(t, inflection=10.0)
• def rush_into(t, inflection=10.0)
• def rush_from(t, inflection=10.0)
• def slow_into(t)
• def double_smooth(t)
• def there_and_back(t, inflection=10.0)
• def there_and_back_with_pause(t, pause_ratio=1. / 3)
• def running_start(t, pull_factor=-0.5)
• def not_quite_there(func=smooth, proportion=0.7)
• def result(t)
• def wiggle(t, wiggles=2)
• def squish_rate_func(func, a=0.4, b=0.6)
• def result(t)
• def lingering(t)
• def exponential_decay(t, half_life=0.1)
• simple_functions.py
• def sigmoid(x)
• def choose_using_cache(n, r)
• def choose(n, r, use_cache=True)
• def get_num_args(function)
• def get_parameters(function)
• def clip_in_place(array, min_val=None, max_val=None)
• def fdiv(a, b, zero_over_zero_value=None)
• def binary_search(function, target, lower_bound, upper_bound, tolerance=1e-4)
• sounds.py
• def play_chord(*nums)
• def play_error_sound()
• def play_finish_sound()
• def get_full_sound_file_path(sound_file_name)
• space_ops.py
• def get_norm(vect)
• def quaternion_mult(q1, q2)
• def quaternion_from_angle_axis(angle, axis)
• def angle_axis_from_quaternion(quaternion)
• def quaternion_conjugate(quaternion)
• def rotate_vector(vector, angle, axis=OUT)
• def thick_diagonal(dim, thickness=2)
• def rotation_matrix(angle, axis)
• def z_to_vector(vector)
• def angle_between(v1, v2)
• def angle_of_vector(vector)
• def angle_between_vectors(v1, v2)
• def project_along_vector(point, vector)
• def normalize(vect, fall_back=None)
• def cross(v1, v2)
• def get_unit_normal(v1, v2)
• def compass_directions(n=4, start_vect=RIGHT)
• def complex_to_R3(complex_num)
• def R3_to_complex(point)
• def complex_func_to_R3_func(complex_func)
• def center_of_mass(points)
• def midpoint(point1, point2)
• def line_intersection(line1, line2)
• def det(a, b)
• def get_winding_number(points)
• strings.py
• def to_camel_case(name)
• def initials(name, sep_values=[" ", "_"])
• def camel_case_initials(name)
• def complex_string(complex_num)
• def split_string_to_isolate_substrings(full_string, *substrings_to_isolate)
• def split_string_list_to_isolate_substrings(string_list, *substrings_to_isolate)
• tex_file_writing.py
• def tex_hash(expression, template_tex_file_body)
• def tex_to_svg_file(expression, template_tex_file_body)
• def generate_tex_file(expression, template_tex_file_body)
• def tex_to_dvi(tex_file)
• def dvi_to_svg(dvi_file, regen_if_exists=False)

## Source and Reference

https://github.com/3b1b/manim19Dec2019

ID: 210700017 Last Updated: 7/17/2021 Revision: 0

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