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VB.NET Bit Shift Operators
  << Operator
  Syntax
  Parts
  Remarks
  See also
  >> Operator
  Syntax
  Parts
  Remarks
  Overloading
  See also
  Source/Reference

VB.NET Bit Shift Operators

The supporting VB.NET Bit Shift Operators: <<, >>.

<< Operator

Performs an arithmetic left shift on a bit pattern.

Syntax

result = pattern << amount  

Parts

result: Required. Integral numeric value. The result of shifting the bit pattern. The data type is the same as that of pattern.

pattern: Required. Integral numeric expression. The bit pattern to be shifted. The data type must be an integral type (SByte, Byte, Short, UShort, Integer, UInteger, Long, or ULong).

amount: Required. Numeric expression. The number of bits to shift the bit pattern. The data type must be Integer or widen to Integer.

Remarks

Arithmetic shifts are not circular, which means the bits shifted off one end of the result are not reintroduced at the other end. In an arithmetic left shift, the bits shifted beyond the range of the result data type are discarded, and the bit positions vacated on the right are set to zero.

To prevent a shift by more bits than the result can hold, Visual Basic masks the value of amount with a size mask that corresponds to the data type of pattern. The binary AND of these values is used for the shift amount. The size masks are as follows:

Data type of pattern Size mask (decimal) Size mask (hexadecimal)
SByte, Byte 7 &H00000007
Short, UShort 15 &H0000000F
Integer, UInteger 31 &H0000001F
Long, ULong 63 &H0000003F

If amount is zero, the value of result is identical to the value of pattern. If amount is negative, it is taken as an unsigned value and masked with the appropriate size mask.

Arithmetic shifts never generate overflow exceptions.

Note

The << operator can be overloaded, which means that a class or structure can redefine its behavior when an operand has the type of that class or structure. If your code uses this operator on such a class or structure, be sure that you understand its redefined behavior. For more information, see Operator Procedures.

See also

>> Operator

Performs an arithmetic right shift on a bit pattern.

Syntax

result = pattern >> amount  

Parts

result: Required. Integral numeric value. The result of shifting the bit pattern. The data type is the same as that of pattern.

pattern: Required. Integral numeric expression. The bit pattern to be shifted. The data type must be an integral type (SByte, Byte, Short, UShort, Integer, UInteger, Long, or ULong).

amount: Required. Numeric expression. The number of bits to shift the bit pattern. The data type must be Integer or widen to Integer.

Remarks

Arithmetic shifts are not circular, which means the bits shifted off one end of the result are not reintroduced at the other end. In an arithmetic right shift, the bits shifted beyond the rightmost bit position are discarded, and the leftmost (sign) bit is propagated into the bit positions vacated at the left. This means that if pattern has a negative value, the vacated positions are set to one; otherwise they are set to zero.

Note that the data types Byte, UShort, UInteger, and ULong are unsigned, so there is no sign bit to propagate. If pattern is of any unsigned type, the vacated positions are always set to zero.

To prevent shifting by more bits than the result can hold, Visual Basic masks the value of amount with a size mask corresponding to the data type of pattern. The binary AND of these values is used for the shift amount. The size masks are as follows:

Data type of pattern Size mask (decimal) Size mask (hexadecimal)
SByte, Byte 7 &H00000007
Short, UShort 15 &H0000000F
Integer, UInteger 31 &H0000001F
Long, ULong 63 &H0000003F

If amount is zero, the value of result is identical to the value of pattern. If amount is negative, it is taken as an unsigned value and masked with the appropriate size mask.

Arithmetic shifts never generate overflow exceptions.

Overloading

The >> operator can be overloaded, which means that a class or structure can redefine its behavior when an operand has the type of that class or structure. If your code uses this operator on such a class or structure, be sure you understand its redefined behavior. For more information, see Operator Procedures.

See also

Source/Reference


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References

  1. Active Server Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa286483.aspx
  2. ASP Overview,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524929%28v=vs.90%29.aspx
  3. ASP Best Practices,  , http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc939157.aspx
  4. ASP Built-in Objects,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/ms524716(v=vs.90).aspx
  5. Response Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525405(v=vs.90).aspx
  6. Request Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524948(v=vs.90).aspx
  7. Server Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525541(v=vs.90).aspx
  8. Application Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525360(v=vs.90).aspx
  9. Session Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524319(8v=vs.90).aspx
  10. ASPError Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524942(v=vs.90).aspx
  11. ObjectContext Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525667(v=vs.90).aspx
  12. Debugging Global.asa Files,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa291249(v=vs.71).aspx
  13. How to: Debug Global.asa files,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms241868(v=vs.80).aspx
  14. Calling COM Components from ASP Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524620(v=VS.90).aspx
  15. IIS ASP Scripting Reference,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524664(v=vs.90).aspx
  16. ASP Keywords,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524672(v=vs.90).aspx
  17. Creating Simple ASP Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524741(v=vs.90).aspx
  18. Including Files in ASP Applications,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524876(v=vs.90).aspx
  19. ASP Overview,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524929(v=vs.90).aspx
  20. FileSystemObject Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z9ty6h50(v=vs.84).aspx
  21. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms675944(v=vs.85).aspx,  , ADO Object Model
  22. ADO Fundamentals,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms680928(v=vs.85).aspx
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