Sideway
output.to from Sideway
Draft for Information Only

Content

  Clause
   Subject and Predicate
   Types of Clauses
   Combination of Independent Clauses
   The Main Clause
   Kinds of dependent Clauses
   Clause Combination within a Sentence
    Compound Sentence
    Complex Sentence
    Compound-Complex Sentence
   General Classification of Clauses

Clause

In general, a sentence is a complete expression composed of one sense or more while a clause can only have one sense of expression. Therefore a clasue is the basic usit of English grammar to express a sense of expression in an expression or throught, the sentence.

She has a necklace which is made of platinum.

Mary has a necklace, and Debra has a necklace too.

Subject and Predicate

Like a sentence, in order to make a complete sense of what is being expressed, a thing of person, persons, thing, or things, etc, must be named together with something saying about the mentioned thing in a clause. In other words, every clause should have two parts of information. That is, a clasue must have at least one subject to speak about and there must have at least one thing or predicate to say or predicate about that subject.

She has a necklace which is made of platinum

Types of Clauses

According to the sense of a clause, clauses in a sentence can be divided into independent and dependent clauses.

  1. Independent clause: An independent clause is a simple complete seperate sentence that contains a subject, and  predicate or verb for expressing a complete sense of expression. An independent clause itself expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning. However, a standalone independent clause is usually called a sensetance because the group of words is a completed expression.

    She has a necklace

  2. dependent clause: A dependent clause can only be a part of a sentence that cannot stand by itself for expressing a complete or good sense of expression. Although a clause also have a subject and verb, a depentent clause must be combined with an independent clause for expressing a complete sense of expression.  A dependent clause itself dies not express a complete thought in both context and meaning. Unlike an independent clause, a dependent clause usually performs various functions for providing addition senses to the independing clause within a sentence.  

    which is made of platinum.

Combination of Independent Clauses

Usually simple independent clauses of simple expression are combined into one sentence of a larger unit of thought for expressing a more complete sense of expression itself. There are three ways to connect or combine independent clauses together.

  1. By Punctuation:

    1. Period: In a more general sense, simple sentences with one single independent clauses accordingly in a paragraph can be considered as a group of related independent cluauses or sentences connected together with a period as the seperator to express a main thought or idea. 

      John bought two ice-cream cones. He gives one to Mary.

    2. Semicolon: Sometimes, two independent clauses can be combined together with a semicolon as the seperator to form one full sentence for expressing a more brief thought or idea on independent clauses with a closely related to one another in sense and nicely balanced of structure and import.  

      John bought two ice-cream cones; he gives one to Mary.

  2. By Coordination: Two independent clauses can also be combined together coordinately with the help of using the coordinating conjunction to form one full sentence for expressing a more clear thought or idea on independent clauses with a closely related in sense and usually nicely balanced of import and structure. A coordinating conjunction is added to turn an independent clause into a coordinate clause of another independent clause. Coordinating conjunctions are and, or, nor, for, yet, but, and so.

    John bought two ice-cream cones, and he gives one to Mary.

    John bought one ice-cream cone, but he gives it to Mary.

    John bought two ice-cream cones, so he gives it to Mary.

  3. By Subordination: Two independent clauses can also be combined together subordinately by turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element with the help of adding a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun to form one full sentence for expressing a more clear thought or idea on the relationship of the main clause and the depependent or subordinate clause. The clause begining with a subordinating word becomes a dependent or subordinate clause with the meaning of the dependent clause depending on the independent clause or element of the sentence.  Subordinating conjunctions are after, unless, although, because, unless, when, ... etc.

    After John bought two ice-cream cones, he gives one to Mary.

The Main Clause

A main clause is also a term used to name a group of words made up of a subject and a predicate like an independent clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence. Therefore a main clause is always an independent clause. Since an independent clause can never be a subordinate clause, a main clause must be a superordinate clause. As a main clause cannot be a subordinate clause, a main clause is the essential elemnt of a sentence. superordinate clause only.

For a simple sentence, the only single clause element unit is a main clause in the sentence and the single clause is also an independent clause.

For a compound sentence, the clause element unit without a connecting conjunction in front of the element unit is a main clause in the sentence because an independent clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence. And the other element units without the connecting words that can stand on their own as acceptable sentences and have equal importance to the main clause are also refereed as main clauses.  The connecting conjunctions, and, or, nor, for, yet, but, and so, are also called coordinators for the usage of connecting main clauses of equal import.

Kinds of dependent Clauses

Although a dependent clause cannot stand by itself without combining with an independent clause to make a complete good sense, a dependent clause can make various functions within a sentence grammatically. Unlike independent clause, a dependent clause must be a subordinate clause of a main or independent clause. But according to the grammatic function of a dependent clause in the sentence, dependent Clauses can be categorized into three basic kinds.

  1. Noun clause: A noun clause or a nominal clause is a dependent clause that acts as a noun part of speech in a sentence for providing information about the subject, object, or complement to the main or independent clause of the sentence.

  2. Adjective clause: An adjective clause, an adjectival clause, or a relative clause is a dependent clause that is used as a multi-word adjective part of speech for providing addition information about a noun or pronoun part, of subject, object or other modifier to the main or independent clause of the sentence.

  3. Adverb clause: An adverb clause or adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb part of speech for providing addition information about what is going on about the verb, adjective, and other adverb part. to the main or independent clause of the sentence.

Clause Combination within a Sentence

Besides a simple sentence, a complex sentence, a compound sentence, and a compound-complex sentence are sentences formed by the combination of clauses.

Compound Sentence

For a compound sentence, there are two ideas or more expressed by two independent clauses or more. A compound sentence can be combined by simply adding a semicolon between the two independent clauses. Method of coordination can also be used when a more clear coordinating relation between the two ideas of independent clauses is needed to be expressed in a sentence. A coordinating conjunction is placed in front of an independent clause for adding additional coordinating information and turning the independent clause into a coordinate clause of another independent clause. Coordinating conjunctions that can be used are and, or, nor, for, yet, but, and so.

  1. "and" is used to express a meaning of "along with", "together with", "as well as", " besides", "moreover", "also", "in addition to", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as a same important thought  in related to another independent clause.

  2. "or" is used to express a meaning of "an additional point of view", "an alternative idea", "an alternative choice", "an alternative decision", "an alternative result", "an alternative possibility"   "an alternative result", "an alternative to one another", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as an alternative thought in related to another independent clause.

  3. "nor" is used to express a meaning of "an additional negative idea", "an additional negative thought", "as not", "no",  "never", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as an alternative negative thought in related to another independent clause of negative sense.

  4. "for" is used to express a meaning of "a reason", "a reason of result", "a reason of causation", "because", "seeing that", "since", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as a usually true thought in related to another independent clause.

  5. "yet" is used to express a meaning of "thought", "a different in expectation", "still", "nevertheless", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as a different complementary thought in related to another independent clause.

  6. "but" is used to express a meaning of "a different point of view", "an opposition of view", "a contrary to expectation", "in contrast", "on the contrary", "other than a negative sense", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as a contrary thought in related to another independent clause.

  7. "so" is used to express a meaning of "the progression of a thought", "the progression of an idea",  "in addition to", or ... etc., for the coordinate clause as an extended thought  in related to another independent clause.

Complex Sentence

For a complex sentence, there are two ideas or more expressed by one independent clause plus one dependent clause or more. Method of subordination can be used when a more clear relation between the idea of a dependent clause and the idea of a main clause, the independent clause, is needed to be expressed in a sentence. A connecting conjunction is placed in front of an independent clause for adding additional connecting information in related to  another independent clause and turning the independent clause into a dependent clause of another independent clause. According to the grammatic function of a dependent clause in the sentence, dependent clauses can be categorized into three basic kinds.

  1. Noun clause: A noun clause or a nominal clause is a dependent clause that can be a coordinate or subordinate clause depending on context and meaning. Connecting conjunction are what, that, whatever.

  2. Adjective clause: An adjective clause, an adjectival clause, or a relative clause is a dependent clause that is used as a multi-word adjective part of speech for providing addition information about a noun or pronoun part, of subject, object or other modifier to the main or independent clause of the sentence.

  3. Adverb clause: An adverb clause or adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb part of speech for providing addition information about what is going on about the verb, adjective, and other adverb part. to the main or independent clause of the sentence.

The subordinating conjunctions that can be used are much more than coordinating conjunctions. These linking words can be cataloged as following.

  1. Time: after, before, as soon as, while, when, as, ...

  2. Cause: because, since, as, ...

  3. Condition: if, provided that, as long as, unless, ...

  4. Concession: although, though, even though, ...

  5. Relative: which, who, that, where, whose, ...

Compound-Complex Sentence

The clause combination of compound-complex sentence is just the application of clause combination techniques used in complex sentence in compound sentence together with clause combination techniques used in compound sentence.

General Classification of Clauses

  1. Clause

  2. Main Clause

  3. Independent Clause

  4. Dependent Clause

  5. Coordinate Clause

  6. Subordinate Clause

  7. Superordinate Clause

  8. Noun Clause

  9. Adjective Clause

  10. Adverb Clause

 


©sideway

ID: 150900020 Last Updated: 20/9/2015 Revision: 0 Ref:

close

References

  1. Thomson A.J., Martinet A.V., 1961
  2. Nesfield, J.C., 1898
close

Latest Updated LinksValid XHTML 1.0 Transitional Valid CSS!Nu Html Checker Firefox53 Chromena IExplorerna
IMAGE

Home 5

Business

Management

HBR 3

Information

Recreation

Hobbies 7

Culture

Chinese 1097

English 337

Reference 67

Computer

Hardware 149

Software

Application 187

Digitization 24

Numeric 19

Programming

Web 757

CSS 1

ASP.NET 1

Regular Expression 1

HTML

Knowledge Base

Common Color 1

Html Entity (Unicode) 1

Html 401 Special 1

OS 389

MS Windows

Windows10 1

.NET Framework 1

DeskTop 7

Knowledge

Mathematics

Formulas 8

Algebra 20

Number Theory 206

Trigonometry 18

Geometry 18

Calculus 67

Complex Analysis 21

Engineering

Tables 8

Mechanical

Mechanics 1

Rigid Bodies

Statics 92

Dynamics 37

Fluid 5

Fluid Kinematics 5

Control

Process Control 1

Acoustics 19

FiniteElement 2

Physics

Electric 10

Biology 1

Geography 1


Copyright © 2000-2019 Sideway . All rights reserved Disclaimers last modified on 06 September 2019