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System.Data Namespace Component
DataSet Class
 Definition
  In this article
 Examples
 Remarks
 Constructors
 Properties
 Methods
 Events
 Explicit Interface Implementations
 Applies to
   .NET Core
   .NET Framework
   .NET Standard
   Xamarin.Android
   Xamarin.iOS
   Xamarin.Mac
 Thread Safety
 See also
 Examples
 Source/Reference

System.Data Namespace Component

The System.Data namespace provides access to classes that represent the ADO.NET architecture. ADO.NET lets you build components that efficiently manage data from multiple data sources.

DataSet Class

Definition

Namespace:
System.Data
Assemblies:
System.Data.dll, netstandard.dll, System.Data.Common.dll

Represents an in-memory cache of data.

In this article

  1. Definition
  2. Examples
  3. Remarks
  4. Constructors
  5. Properties
  6. Methods
  7. Events
  8. Explicit Interface Implementations
  9. Applies to
  10. Thread Safety
  11. See also
C#
[System.Serializable]
public class DataSet : System.ComponentModel.MarshalByValueComponent, System.ComponentModel.IListSource, System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitializeNotification, System.Runtime.Serialization.ISerializable, System.Xml.Serialization.IXmlSerializable
Inheritance
Object MarshalByValueComponent DataSet
Attributes
SerializableAttribute
Implements
IListSource ISupportInitialize ISupportInitializeNotification ISerializable IXmlSerializable

Examples

The following example consists of several methods that, combined, create and fill a DataSet from the Northwind database.

C#
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

namespace Microsoft.AdoNet.DataSetDemo
{
    class NorthwindDataSet
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            string connectionString = GetConnectionString();
            ConnectToData(connectionString);
        }

        private static void ConnectToData(string connectionString)
        {
            //Create a SqlConnection to the Northwind database.
            using (SqlConnection connection =
                       new SqlConnection(connectionString))
            {
                //Create a SqlDataAdapter for the Suppliers table.
                SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();

                // A table mapping names the DataTable.
                adapter.TableMappings.Add("Table", "Suppliers");

                // Open the connection.
                connection.Open();
                Console.WriteLine("The SqlConnection is open.");

                // Create a SqlCommand to retrieve Suppliers data.
                SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(
                    "SELECT SupplierID, CompanyName FROM dbo.Suppliers;",
                    connection);
                command.CommandType = CommandType.Text;

                // Set the SqlDataAdapter's SelectCommand.
                adapter.SelectCommand = command;

                // Fill the DataSet.
                DataSet dataSet = new DataSet("Suppliers");
                adapter.Fill(dataSet);

                // Create a second Adapter and Command to get
                // the Products table, a child table of Suppliers. 
                SqlDataAdapter productsAdapter = new SqlDataAdapter();
                productsAdapter.TableMappings.Add("Table", "Products");

                SqlCommand productsCommand = new SqlCommand(
                    "SELECT ProductID, SupplierID FROM dbo.Products;",
                    connection);
                productsAdapter.SelectCommand = productsCommand;

                // Fill the DataSet.
                productsAdapter.Fill(dataSet);

                // Close the connection.
                connection.Close();
                Console.WriteLine("The SqlConnection is closed.");

                // Create a DataRelation to link the two tables
                // based on the SupplierID.
                DataColumn parentColumn =
                    dataSet.Tables["Suppliers"].Columns["SupplierID"];
                DataColumn childColumn =
                    dataSet.Tables["Products"].Columns["SupplierID"];
                DataRelation relation =
                    new System.Data.DataRelation("SuppliersProducts",
                    parentColumn, childColumn);
                dataSet.Relations.Add(relation);
                Console.WriteLine(
                    "The {0} DataRelation has been created.",
                    relation.RelationName);
            }
        }

        static private string GetConnectionString()
        {
            // To avoid storing the connection string in your code, 
            // you can retrieve it from a configuration file.
            return "Data Source=(local);Initial Catalog=Northwind;"
                + "Integrated Security=SSPI";
        }
    }
}

Remarks

The DataSet, which is an in-memory cache of data retrieved from a data source, is a major component of the ADO.NET architecture. The DataSet consists of a collection of DataTable objects that you can relate to each other with DataRelation objects. You can also enforce data integrity in the DataSet by using the UniqueConstraint and ForeignKeyConstraint objects. For further details about working with DataSet objects, see DataSets, DataTables, and DataViews.

Whereas DataTable objects contain the data, the DataRelationCollection allows you to navigate though the table hierarchy. The tables are contained in a DataTableCollection accessed through the Tables property. When accessing DataTable objects, note that they are conditionally case sensitive. For example, if one DataTable is named "mydatatable" and another is named "Mydatatable", a string used to search for one of the tables is regarded as case sensitive. However, if "mydatatable" exists and "Mydatatable" does not, the search string is regarded as case insensitive. For more information about working with DataTable objects, see Creating a DataTable.

A DataSet can read and write data and schema as XML documents. The data and schema can then be transported across HTTP and used by any application, on any platform that is XML-enabled. You can save the schema as an XML schema with the WriteXmlSchema method, and both schema and data can be saved using the WriteXml method. To read an XML document that includes both schema and data, use the ReadXml method.

In a typical multiple-tier implementation, the steps for creating and refreshing a DataSet, and in turn, updating the original data are to:

  1. Build and fill each DataTable in a DataSet with data from a data source using a DataAdapter.

  2. Change the data in individual DataTable objects by adding, updating, or deleting DataRow objects.

  3. Invoke the GetChanges method to create a second DataSet that features only the changes to the data.

  4. Call the Update method of the DataAdapter, passing the second DataSet as an argument.

  5. Invoke the Merge method to merge the changes from the second DataSet into the first.

  6. Invoke the AcceptChanges on the DataSet. Alternatively, invoke RejectChanges to cancel the changes.

Note

The DataSet and DataTable objects inherit from MarshalByValueComponent, and support the ISerializable interface for remoting. These are the only ADO.NET objects that can be remoted.

Note

Classes inherited from DataSet are not finalized by the garbage collector, because the finalizer has been suppressed in DataSet. The derived class can call the ReRegisterForFinalize method in its constructor to allow the class to be finalized by the garbage collector.

Constructors

DataSet()

Initializes a new instance of the DataSet class.

DataSet(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

Initializes a new instance of a DataSet class that has the given serialization information and context.

DataSet(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext, Boolean)

Initializes a new instance of the DataSet class.

DataSet(String)

Initializes a new instance of a DataSet class with the given name.

Properties

CaseSensitive

Gets or sets a value indicating whether string comparisons within DataTable objects are case-sensitive.

Container

Gets the container for the component.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
DataSetName

Gets or sets the name of the current DataSet.

DefaultViewManager

Gets a custom view of the data contained in the DataSet to allow filtering, searching, and navigating using a custom DataViewManager.

DesignMode

Gets a value indicating whether the component is currently in design mode.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
EnforceConstraints

Gets or sets a value indicating whether constraint rules are followed when attempting any update operation.

Events

Gets the list of event handlers that are attached to this component.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
ExtendedProperties

Gets the collection of customized user information associated with the DataSet.

HasErrors

Gets a value indicating whether there are errors in any of the DataTable objects within this DataSet.

IsInitialized

Gets a value that indicates whether the DataSet is initialized.

Locale

Gets or sets the locale information used to compare strings within the table.

Namespace

Gets or sets the namespace of the DataSet.

Prefix

Gets or sets an XML prefix that aliases the namespace of the DataSet.

Relations

Gets the collection of relations that link tables and allow navigation from parent tables to child tables.

RemotingFormat

Gets or sets a SerializationFormat for the DataSet used during remoting.

SchemaSerializationMode

Gets or sets a SchemaSerializationMode for a DataSet.

Site

Gets or sets an ISite for the DataSet.

Tables

Gets the collection of tables contained in the DataSet.

Methods

AcceptChanges()

Commits all the changes made to this DataSet since it was loaded or since the last time AcceptChanges() was called.

BeginInit()

Begins the initialization of a DataSet that is used on a form or used by another component. The initialization occurs at run time.

Clear()

Clears the DataSet of any data by removing all rows in all tables.

Clone()

Copies the structure of the DataSet, including all DataTable schemas, relations, and constraints. Does not copy any data.

Copy()

Copies both the structure and data for this DataSet.

CreateDataReader()

Returns a DataTableReader with one result set per DataTable, in the same sequence as the tables appear in the Tables collection.

CreateDataReader(DataTable[])

Returns a DataTableReader with one result set per DataTable.

DetermineSchemaSerializationMode(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

Determines the SchemaSerializationMode for a DataSet.

DetermineSchemaSerializationMode(XmlReader)

Determines the SchemaSerializationMode for a DataSet.

Dispose()

Releases all resources used by the MarshalByValueComponent.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
Dispose(Boolean)

Releases the unmanaged resources used by the MarshalByValueComponent and optionally releases the managed resources.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
EndInit()

Ends the initialization of a DataSet that is used on a form or used by another component. The initialization occurs at run time.

Equals(Object)

Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(Inherited from Object)
GetChanges()

Gets a copy of the DataSet that contains all changes made to it since it was loaded or since AcceptChanges() was last called.

GetChanges(DataRowState)

Gets a copy of the DataSet containing all changes made to it since it was last loaded, or since AcceptChanges() was called, filtered by DataRowState.

GetDataSetSchema(XmlSchemaSet)

Gets a copy of XmlSchemaSet for the DataSet.

GetHashCode()

Serves as the default hash function.

(Inherited from Object)
GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

Populates a serialization information object with the data needed to serialize the DataSet.

GetSchemaSerializable()

Returns a serializable XmlSchema instance.

GetSerializationData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

Deserializes the table data from the binary or XML stream.

GetService(Type)

Gets the implementer of the IServiceProvider.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
GetType()

Gets the Type of the current instance.

(Inherited from Object)
GetXml()

Returns the XML representation of the data stored in the DataSet.

GetXmlSchema()

Returns the XML Schema for the XML representation of the data stored in the DataSet.

HasChanges()

Gets a value indicating whether the DataSet has changes, including new, deleted, or modified rows.

HasChanges(DataRowState)

Gets a value indicating whether the DataSet has changes, including new, deleted, or modified rows, filtered by DataRowState.

InferXmlSchema(Stream, String[])

Applies the XML schema from the specified Stream to the DataSet.

InferXmlSchema(String, String[])

Applies the XML schema from the specified file to the DataSet.

InferXmlSchema(TextReader, String[])

Applies the XML schema from the specified TextReader to the DataSet.

InferXmlSchema(XmlReader, String[])

Applies the XML schema from the specified XmlReader to the DataSet.

InitializeDerivedDataSet()

Deserialize all of the tables data of the DataSet from the binary or XML stream.

IsBinarySerialized(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

Inspects the format of the serialized representation of the DataSet.

Load(IDataReader, LoadOption, DataTable[])

Fills a DataSet with values from a data source using the supplied IDataReader, using an array of DataTable instances to supply the schema and namespace information.

Load(IDataReader, LoadOption, FillErrorEventHandler, DataTable[])

Fills a DataSet with values from a data source using the supplied IDataReader, using an array of DataTable instances to supply the schema and namespace information.

Load(IDataReader, LoadOption, String[])

Fills a DataSet with values from a data source using the supplied IDataReader, using an array of strings to supply the names for the tables within the DataSet.

MemberwiseClone()

Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(Inherited from Object)
Merge(DataRow[])

Merges an array of DataRow objects into the current DataSet.

Merge(DataRow[], Boolean, MissingSchemaAction)

Merges an array of DataRow objects into the current DataSet, preserving or discarding changes in the DataSet and handling an incompatible schema according to the given arguments.

Merge(DataSet)

Merges a specified DataSet and its schema into the current DataSet.

Merge(DataSet, Boolean)

Merges a specified DataSet and its schema into the current DataSet, preserving or discarding any changes in this DataSet according to the given argument.

Merge(DataSet, Boolean, MissingSchemaAction)

Merges a specified DataSet and its schema with the current DataSet, preserving or discarding changes in the current DataSet and handling an incompatible schema according to the given arguments.

Merge(DataTable)

Merges a specified DataTable and its schema into the current DataSet.

Merge(DataTable, Boolean, MissingSchemaAction)

Merges a specified DataTable and its schema into the current DataSet, preserving or discarding changes in the DataSet and handling an incompatible schema according to the given arguments.

OnPropertyChanging(PropertyChangedEventArgs)

Raises the OnPropertyChanging(PropertyChangedEventArgs) event.

OnRemoveRelation(DataRelation)

Occurs when a DataRelation object is removed from a DataTable.

OnRemoveTable(DataTable)

Occurs when a DataTable is removed from a DataSet.

RaisePropertyChanging(String)

Sends a notification that the specified DataSet property is about to change.

ReadXml(Stream)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified Stream.

ReadXml(Stream, XmlReadMode)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified Stream and XmlReadMode.

ReadXml(String)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified file.

ReadXml(String, XmlReadMode)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified file and XmlReadMode.

ReadXml(TextReader)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified TextReader.

ReadXml(TextReader, XmlReadMode)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified TextReader and XmlReadMode.

ReadXml(XmlReader)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified XmlReader.

ReadXml(XmlReader, XmlReadMode)

Reads XML schema and data into the DataSet using the specified XmlReader and XmlReadMode.

ReadXmlSchema(Stream)

Reads the XML schema from the specified Stream into the DataSet.

ReadXmlSchema(String)

Reads the XML schema from the specified file into the DataSet.

ReadXmlSchema(TextReader)

Reads the XML schema from the specified TextReader into the DataSet.

ReadXmlSchema(XmlReader)

Reads the XML schema from the specified XmlReader into the DataSet.

ReadXmlSerializable(XmlReader)

Ignores attributes and returns an empty DataSet.

RejectChanges()

Rolls back all the changes made to the DataSet since it was created, or since the last time AcceptChanges() was called.

Reset()

Clears all tables and removes all relations, foreign constraints, and tables from the DataSet. Subclasses should override Reset() to restore a DataSet to its original state.

ShouldSerializeRelations()

Gets a value indicating whether Relations property should be persisted.

ShouldSerializeTables()

Gets a value indicating whether Tables property should be persisted.

ToString()

Returns a String containing the name of the Component, if any. This method should not be overridden.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
WriteXml(Stream)

Writes the current data for the DataSet using the specified Stream.

WriteXml(Stream, XmlWriteMode)

Writes the current data, and optionally the schema, for the DataSet using the specified Stream and XmlWriteMode. To write the schema, set the value for the mode parameter to WriteSchema.

WriteXml(String)

Writes the current data for the DataSet to the specified file.

WriteXml(String, XmlWriteMode)

Writes the current data, and optionally the schema, for the DataSet to the specified file using the specified XmlWriteMode. To write the schema, set the value for the mode parameter to WriteSchema.

WriteXml(TextWriter)

Writes the current data for the DataSet using the specified TextWriter.

WriteXml(TextWriter, XmlWriteMode)

Writes the current data, and optionally the schema, for the DataSet using the specified TextWriter and XmlWriteMode. To write the schema, set the value for the mode parameter to WriteSchema.

WriteXml(XmlWriter)

Writes the current data for the DataSet to the specified XmlWriter.

WriteXml(XmlWriter, XmlWriteMode)

Writes the current data, and optionally the schema, for the DataSet using the specified XmlWriter and XmlWriteMode. To write the schema, set the value for the mode parameter to WriteSchema.

WriteXmlSchema(Stream)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to the specified Stream object.

WriteXmlSchema(Stream, Converter<Type,String>)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to the specified Stream object.

WriteXmlSchema(String)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to a file.

WriteXmlSchema(String, Converter<Type,String>)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to a file.

WriteXmlSchema(TextWriter)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to the specified TextWriter object.

WriteXmlSchema(TextWriter, Converter<Type,String>)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to the specified TextWriter.

WriteXmlSchema(XmlWriter)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to an XmlWriter object.

WriteXmlSchema(XmlWriter, Converter<Type,String>)

Writes the DataSet structure as an XML schema to the specified XmlWriter.

Events

Disposed

Adds an event handler to listen to the Disposed event on the component.

(Inherited from MarshalByValueComponent)
Initialized

Occurs after the DataSet is initialized.

MergeFailed

Occurs when a target and source DataRow have the same primary key value, and EnforceConstraints is set to true.

Explicit Interface Implementations

IListSource.ContainsListCollection

For a description of this member, see ContainsListCollection.

IListSource.GetList()

For a description of this member, see GetList().

IXmlSerializable.GetSchema()

For a description of this member, see GetSchema().

IXmlSerializable.ReadXml(XmlReader)

For a description of this member, see ReadXml(XmlReader).

IXmlSerializable.WriteXml(XmlWriter)

For a description of this member, see WriteXml(XmlWriter).

Applies to

.NET Core

3.0 Preview 8 2.2 2.1 2.0

.NET Framework

4.8 4.7.2 4.7.1 4.7 4.6.2 4.6.1 4.6 4.5.2 4.5.1 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.0 1.1

.NET Standard

2.1 Preview 2.0

Xamarin.Android

7.1

Xamarin.iOS

10.8

Xamarin.Mac

3.0

Thread Safety

This type is safe for multithreaded read operations. You must synchronize any write operations.

See also

Examples

Examples of DataSet Class
ASP.NET Code Input:
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
    <head>
       <title>Sample Page</title>
       <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
       <script runat="server" >
           Sub Page_Load()
               Dim xstr As String
               Dim xconn As New System.Data.OleDb.OleDbConnection
               xconn.ConnectionString = "Provider=Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0;Data Source=T:\test.mdb;User Id=admin;Password=;"
               xconn.Open()
               xstr = xstr + "Connection xconn to database test.mdb  is opened successfully.<br />"
               Dim xdata, ydata, zdata As New System.Data.DataSet
               Dim xadapt, yadapt As System.Data.OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter
               Dim sql As String
               sql = "SELECT * FROM T1"
               xadapt = New System.Data.OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter(sql, xconn)
               xstr = xstr + "Dataadapter xadapt is assigned to SELECT * FROM T1 through xconn successfully.<br />"
               sql = "SELECT * FROM T2"
               yadapt = New System.Data.OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter()
               Dim xcomm As System.Data.OleDb.OleDbCommand = new System.Data.OleDb.OleDbCommand()
               xcomm.Connection = xconn
               xcomm.CommandText = "Select * from T2"
               yadapt.SelectCommand = xcomm
               xstr = xstr + "Dataadapter yadapt is assigned to SELECT * FROM T2 through xconn successfully.<br />"
               xadapt.Fill(xdata,"T1")
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset xdata is filled with dataadapter xadapt successfully.<br />"
               yadapt.Fill(ydata)
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset ydata is filled with dataadapter yadapt successfully.<br />"
               xadapt.Fill(zdata,"T1")
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset zdata is filled with dataadapter xadapt successfully.<br />"
               yadapt.Fill(zdata,"T2")
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset zdata is filled with dataadapter yadapt successfully.<br />"
               xadapt.Dispose()
               yadapt.Dispose()
               xstr = xstr + "Dataadapter xadapt, and yadapt are disposed successfully.<br />"
               xconn.Close()
               xstr = xstr + "Connection xconn is closed successfully.<br />"
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset xdata.tables(T1).rows(0).item(1):" + xdata.Tables("T1").Rows(0).Item("f1") + "<br />"
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset ydata.tables(T2).rows(0).item(1):" + ydata.Tables(0).Rows(0).Item(1) + "<br />"
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset zdata.tables(T1).rows(0).item(1):" + zdata.Tables("T1").Rows(0).Item("f1") + "<br />"
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset zdata.tables(T2).rows(0).item(1):" + zdata.Tables(1).Rows(0).Item(1) + "<br />"
               xdata.Dispose()
               ydata.Dispose()
               zdata.Dispose()
               xstr = xstr + "Dataset xdata, ydata, and zdata are disposed successfully.<br />"
               
               lbl01.Text = xstr
           End Sub
       </script>
    </head>
    <body>
<%Response.Write("<p>Results on "& Request.ServerVariables("SERVER_SOFTWARE") & " .net: " & System.Environment.Version.ToString & " " & ScriptEngine & " Version " & ScriptEngineMajorVersion & "." & ScriptEngineMinorVersion & "</p>")%>
       <% Response.Write ("<h1>This is a Sample Page of DataSet Class</h1>") %>
       <p>
           <%-- Set on Page_Load --%>
           <asp:Label id="lbl01" runat="server" />
       </p>
    </body>
</html>
HTML Web Page Embedded Output:

Source/Reference


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References

  1. Active Server Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa286483.aspx
  2. ASP Overview,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524929%28v=vs.90%29.aspx
  3. ASP Best Practices,  , http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc939157.aspx
  4. ASP Built-in Objects,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/ms524716(v=vs.90).aspx
  5. Response Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525405(v=vs.90).aspx
  6. Request Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524948(v=vs.90).aspx
  7. Server Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525541(v=vs.90).aspx
  8. Application Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525360(v=vs.90).aspx
  9. Session Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524319(8v=vs.90).aspx
  10. ASPError Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524942(v=vs.90).aspx
  11. ObjectContext Object (IIS),  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms525667(v=vs.90).aspx
  12. Debugging Global.asa Files,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa291249(v=vs.71).aspx
  13. How to: Debug Global.asa files,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms241868(v=vs.80).aspx
  14. Calling COM Components from ASP Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524620(v=VS.90).aspx
  15. IIS ASP Scripting Reference,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524664(v=vs.90).aspx
  16. ASP Keywords,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524672(v=vs.90).aspx
  17. Creating Simple ASP Pages,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524741(v=vs.90).aspx
  18. Including Files in ASP Applications,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524876(v=vs.90).aspx
  19. ASP Overview,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms524929(v=vs.90).aspx
  20. FileSystemObject Object,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z9ty6h50(v=vs.84).aspx
  21. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms675944(v=vs.85).aspx,  , ADO Object Model
  22. ADO Fundamentals,  , http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms680928(v=vs.85).aspx
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