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ContentVector Space
Vector SpaceThe most common types of vector spaces are a threedimensional Euclidean space, a twodimensional subspace, and a onedimensional subspace. But, vector can be extended to 𝑛dimensional space.ThreeDimensional Euclidean SpaceIn a threedimensional Euclidean space, a point can be represented in onetoone correspondence by a real number triple with respect to a coordinate system.Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate SystemThe rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is the most common and important coordinate system used in vector manipulation. The threedimensional space is constructed by three concurrent and mutually perpendicular lines. The set of all real numbers are onetoone correspondence with the points of each line. The three lines are arranged with the point of concurrence corresponds to 0 and have a common unit of measurement. The three lines are called axes and are denoted as 𝑋_{1}, 𝑋_{2}, and 𝑋_{3} axes, or 𝑥, 𝑦, and 𝑧 axes. For convenient, the variables used to represent a point are usually designated by 𝑥_{1}, 𝑥_{2}, and 𝑥_{3}, or 𝑥, 𝑦, and 𝑧. There always exists an ordered triple of real numbers (𝑥_{1},𝑥_{2},𝑥_{3}) or (𝑥,𝑦,𝑧) corresponds to each point of the threedimensional space and conversely. The triple of real number must be in correct order because the order of triple must correlate with the order of axes arrangement. Therefore both coordinate axes and triple variables are usually named in alphabetic and numeric order for convenient.Rectangular Coordinate System ConfigurationAccording to the arrangement of coordinate axes in space, a rectangular coordinate system can be divided into righthanded or lefthanded configuration. The most commonly used rectangular coordinate system are righthanded configuration. The configuration of a rectangular coordinate system is determined by the arrangement of positive axes. Consider a vector from origin 𝑂(0,0,0) to any point 𝐴(𝑥,𝑦,𝑧) in the positive region. The rectangular coordinate system is said to be righthanded configuration if the order of coordinate axes arrangement following the order of coordinate component is in the direction of right hand fingers with the thumb pointing along with the vector𝑂𝐴. Similarly, consider a vector from origin 𝑂(0,0,0) to any point 𝐴(𝑥,𝑦,𝑧) in the positive region. The rectangular coordinate system is said to be lefthanded configuration if the order of coordinate axes arrangement following the order of coordinate component is in the direction of left hand fingers with the thumb pointing along with the vector 𝑂𝐴. Rectangular Coordinate ConfigurationRectangular Coordinate ConfigurationRightHanded Rectangular Coordinate System : A rectangular Cartesian coordinate system is said to be righthanded only if the positive coordinate axes observed from outside to the origin is arranged following the order of coordinates in counterclockwise arrangement as the right hand fingers.
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