Electric Draft for Information Only
ContentElectrical Force
Electrical ForceThe electrical forces of magnets and electricity are either induced of generated. These forces work very differently from general mechanic forces, e.g. gravitational forces. In fact, the attractive electrostatic force between two charged particles is far stronger than the gravitation forces being exerted between two solid particles.Charged ParticlesThe tiny particles prsent in atoms are called protons and electrons. Protons are positively charged, while electrons are negatively charged. Both protons and electrons are the smallest existing charged particles. Protons are very tightly packed within a nucleus of an atom. However, electrons can move freely around the nucleus since these electrons are not perpetually attracted to the nucleus. For example a hydrogen atom. The gravity of two masses is equal to𝐹_{grav}=𝐺
Fhe electricity of two charged particles is
𝐹_{elec}=
Therefore with reference to an hydrogen atom, the electricity is much stronger than gravity. The ratio of two forces is
Electric Field of Spherical shellFor a point particle, when the radius 𝑟 of electric field approaches 0, 𝐸 is undefined at the origin, since𝑟is selfcontradictory. Therefore the particle cannot exert a force on itself. For a uniformly charged spherical shell as below The charged spherical cell acts like a point particle for 𝑟≫𝑅, i.e.
Due to spherical symmetry, the field is in the 𝑟direction even close up to the sphere. The total electric field 𝐸_{𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒} can be calculated using the principle of superposition where 𝐸_{𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙} is the vector sum of the electric field from all charges. However, the electric field inside the shell is always equal to zero. i.e.
Electric DipoleA electric dipole is a pair of two equal but opposite point charges at a distance apart. The dipole moment is
Dipole Electric FieldBy choicing the midpoint of the dipole as the origin, the dipole electric field can be determined as below The dipole electric field is equal to
For electric field far away from the electric dipole, i.e 𝑟≫𝑠, then the dipole electric field along 𝑥axis is
For the electric field of point particle is approximately equal to ~1/𝑟^{2} and the electric field of dipole is approximately equal to ~1/𝑟^{3}.
Source and Referencehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v57B_1ZBAho&list=PLZ6kagz8q0bvxaUKCe2RRvU_h7wtNNxxi&index=1 ©sideway ID: 191100302 Last Updated: 11/3/2019 Revision: 0 Latest Updated Links

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