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ContentElectric Potential at a Single Point
Electric Potential at a Single PointPotential of finite systems of charges at a single point 𝐴 is the potential relative to infinite separation.𝑉_{𝐴}≡𝑉_{𝐴}𝑉_{∞}
By convention, the potential at infinity is equal to zero.The potential of a point charge 𝑉_{𝑟}≡𝑉_{𝑟}𝑉_{∞}=−
While the electric potential energy of two particles is
𝑈_{ele}=
The relationship of potential difference and electric field can be expressed as
Therefore, knowing 𝐸 at only one point does not tell 𝑉 at that point.
And knowing 𝑉 at that point does not tell 𝐸.
Potential inside a MetalFor a metal in equilibrium, the eletric field inside is 𝐸=0, and the potential is constant. when a metal is in equilibrium, electron sea inside the metal is in equilibrium also, that is the velocity 𝑣_{net}=0. When a metal is out of equilibrium, /for examples, applied current, ie hooked up in a circuit. or immediately after aplying a field i.e. electrons move to screen it.Potential Difference in an InsulatorThe electric field in capacitor filled with insulator is equal to𝐸_{net}=𝐸_{plates}+𝐸_{dipoles}
The electric field in insulator composes of two components. Field from the charges on plates and field from the induced dipoles. The average field from induced dipoles is opposite to the field from the plates. When a charged particle moving from 𝐴 to 𝐵, 𝐸_{dipoles} is sometimes parallel to 𝑑𝑥and sometimes is antiparallel to 𝑑 𝑥. Considering the path due to polarized insulator outside the insulator.
Dielectric ConstantDielectric medium has a constant 𝐾. Inside the insulating medium𝐸_{net}= . The bigger 𝐾 is the more it dampens the electric field. In other words, a bigger 𝐾 means greater polarization. Dielectric constant for various insulators: vacuum1 by definition air1.0006 typical plastic5 NaCl6.1 water80 strontium titanate310𝐸_{applied}𝐾 Source and Referencehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZIGVAppFo&list=PLZ6kagz8q0bvxaUKCe2RRvU_h7wtNNxxi&index=10 ©sideway ID: 191200702 Last Updated: 12/7/2019 Revision: 0 Latest Updated Links

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